Janine Mott’s eyes light up when she talks about the changes in adult education that Tacoma Community College (TCC) is bringing to Gig Harbor and the Key Peninsula. Mott, TCC executive director for the Gig Harbor Campus and Continuing Education, discussed the innovations in Adult Basic Education, which is more commonly known as the GED program.
TCC has had an adult basic education program for at least 15 years, with support from the Gig Harbor Garden Tour (gigharborgardentour.org/toursroots.htm) since 1998. Mott said that until recently, the program focused only on GED test preparation. Over time two trends have surfaced: Potential employers, if given two equivalent applicants, will prefer the one with a high school diploma over one with a GED; in addition the GED test is becoming more difficult to pass.
Enrollment was spotty by late 2013. TCC cancelled the winter 2014 class to reassess and make changes. The new program opened the following spring.
The TCC basic skills department redesigned the curriculum with the goal to offer a learning experience that went beyond teaching to the test and would give students the opportunity to see themselves as lifelong learners. In addition, students do more then get a GED –– they can enter a high school completion program.
The class was relocated –– the Red Barn offered space and was more central than the Home fire station.
The new course includes two classes. Each class — read/write and math — meets twice a week for two hours. Students meet with an advisor prior to registration to review transcripts and job experience in order to understand their individual needs.
Tony Sincich, attending his second quarter, quit high school in his senior year. “It just wasn’t for me,” he said. After two years of working, he was too old to participate in programs offered through the high school. He thinks this program is great, citing the one-on-one attention, flexibility and lower pressure. He appreciates being able to pace himself, and plans to continue to work toward his high school diploma with electives at the Tacoma campus after this quarter.
Garrett Loney dropped out after the ninth grade. As with Sincich, high school was not a good fit. He, too, loves the program. He thinks the small size helps kids who may have trouble focusing. He plans to take the GED test at the end of the quarter, then wants to go to the Tacoma campus to complete his high school diploma and get an associate degree.
Mott discussed technology and its role. “It is not the only answer,” she stated. “Using technology in outreach takes both skill and access, and access can be a real problem in more rural communities. But we also know that we must develop those skills for adults to be successful.” For that reason the program purchased 15 laptops, which students receive for the quarter, along with an email account through TCC.
How is the new program working? “We are very pleased,” said Mott. With a target of 15 to 25, current enrollment is 12, so there is capacity for more. And she noted, “This quarter we have six students who returned for a second quarter. That simply never happened before. It is huge and we are thrilled.”
Aaron Murphy, attending his first quarter, was enthusiastic. He dropped out after his junior year because he needed to work, and more recently moved to the Key Peninsula. He has a quote from Benjamin Franklin that means a lot to him: “If you do tomorrow what you did today, you will get tomorrow what you got today.” With that in mind, he decided it was time to “change it up” — joining the adult basic education program for high school credit and a diploma is “pretty cool.” “And the schedule still lets me work here at the Red Barn in the afternoons,” he said.
Want to know more?
Visit the TCC Gig Harbor website at tacomacc.edu/abouttcc/ourcampuses/gigharborcampus/adulteducationhighschoolcompletion, or call (253) 460-2424.
Tuition is $25 a quarter though students may be eligible for a waiver. There is also a $4 fee for course materials.
Republican Michelle Caldier, elected in a rancorous campaign by a close margin to replace Larry Seaquist, is a political newcomer. She now represents the Key Peninsula as one of the state representatives to the 26th District.
Caldier grew up in Kitsap County, the fourth generation of her family to live there — her great-grandfather served as the first postmaster of Kitsap County. She graduated from Central Kitsap High, then received her associate of sciences from Olympic College before earning her bachelor of science and then her doctor of dental surgery from the University of Washington.
From the ages of 10 to 17, she entered into the state foster care system, largely in response to an abusive stepfather. During that time she lived in many different settings, and she credits a stable school situation for her ultimate success. She was able to stay in the same middle school and high school throughout those tumultuous times. Her junior high counselor ultimately became her high school principal, and he encouraged her to enter the Running Start program.
During dental school, as a divorced mother with a young daughter, she felt well-supported by fellow classmates, especially other single mothers. “We watched out for each other,” she said. And once she completed dental school and established her practice, she became a foster mother herself, caring for a 16 year old and then a 13-year-old daughter. There were some rocky times, she admits, but she now describes herself as a proud mother and foster mother of three beautiful daughters, a grandmother and a small-business owner.
“I believe education is the key to a better future for everyone and will support measures to fund education first and make sure children receive our first dollar, and not our last dime,” Caldier said.
Two years ago, after working for more than a decade in a dental practice serving nursing homes and volunteering to care for the underserved, she joined others to lobby the Washington State Legislature to restore funding for adult dental care for those on Medicaid. When that was successful, she was inspired to run for a seat.
Her legislative priorities are protecting the most vulnerable, prioritizing education in the state budget and efficiency with taxpayer dollars. She serves on the following committees: education,
healthcare and wellness, general government and information technology.
Education is a top priority, and she notes that paying for the mandated changes will be an issue. She remains opposed to increased taxation and feels that the needs can be met by more efficient use of current funding — spending more wisely. In addition she said that with an improved economy, there is more money in the state budget.She said that transportation has been identified as high priority for the Key Peninsula and she felt she could not support the Pierce County transportation plan because it did not address the needs of her district living on the north side of the Narrows. She said she is still learning about the “buckets of money” and wants to be sure that the Key Peninsula gets some of those dollars — perhaps thinking outside the box and using more fuel-efficient vehicles.
Caldier notes that her roots are in Bremerton and Port Orchard, where she now lives. To get to know the Key Peninsula, she made phone calls from a list of voters provided by the state.
When asked how she will continue to be in touch with the concerns of the Key Peninsula, she said she has attended the Key Peninsula Business Association meetings and the Key Peninsula Community Council. She also attends local events. She encourages constituents to contact her directly.
“I always have an open door,” she said. “I am here to represent everyone. Contact me with questions, concerns or issues you think are important.”
Derek Young, recently elected to the Pierce County Council by a razor-thin margin, did not come to politics with a long-range plan to do so.
He moved to Gig Harbor at age 9. His grade school and middle school have both closed, he said as he smiled ruefully.
“At least Gig Harbor High School is still standing,”he noted.
His parents, sister and nieces all continue to live in Gig Harbor.
Young attended the University of Washington. When he returned to Gig Harbor with the mindset of a young environmentalist, he was frustrated by his community’s reaction to the then new growth management plan.
He said he ran for a position on the Gig Harbor City Council to make a point and never expected to win. But he took the race and at age 21 found himself on the council, where he served for 16 years.
As a result of his involvement in transportation and land-use issues, Young participated in a number of regional committees and came to the conclusion that decisions made at a county level have an enormous impact on local communities. At that point he decided to run for the Pierce County Council. After a hand recount, he was declared the victor in January, replacing Stan Flemming.
“District 7, covering north Tacoma, Gig Harbor and the Key Peninsula, represents a true snapshot of Pierce County —covering the most urban, the most rural and everything in between,”Young said.
To get to know the Key Peninsula, he has attended many meetings. Over a recent two-week period, he came to a Community Council meeting, attended the first organizational meeting of the Key Peninsula Democrats and met with the Key Peninsula Business Association. He plans to spend one to two days a week doing outreach to his constituents and noted that sometimes “just hanging around”can help to keep in touch with people.
Young’s interest in land use continues unabated.
“If we are to protect rural areas, we need to grow in more populated areas. The trick is to do it gracefully and to maintain the character of each community. It is hard, but it is important to try,”he said.
When asked what he sees as the main issues facing the Key Peninsula, he prioritized the Shoreline Management Plan, the Key Peninsula Community Plan as it fits into the Pierce County Comprehensive Plan, and transportation. His involvement in other pressing issues —mental health services, the county business plan and the jail ––has added to his busy schedule.
Working with the County Council has had its challenges, Young said. Although the broad strokes look similar, the work is on a larger scale compared to that of Gig Harbor, and the area is much more diverse.
Young also has seen a much more partisan approach. While colleagues on the Gig Harbor City Council might not agree, the climate was one of mutual respect and collegiality. He has felt that there has been more one-upmanship at the county level and hopes that this can change.
“It’s up to us to minimize conflict, not to put politics above the community,”he said.
“I am enjoying the heck out of getting to know folks I didn’t know prior to the campaign,”he added. “The institutions on the Key Peninsula are extraordinary, as is the level of community spirit and civic responsibility. There is a bit of a ‘we’re on our own’feeling that comes from the rural location. It is tremendously humbling to be given the honor to serve. My door is open. I am a phone call away and answer all my emails.”
In 2008, following a four-year process, a group of 15 Key Peninsula citizens completed a community plan, a document describing the Key Peninsula and providing a guide for future development. It is available online at co.pierce.wa.us/DocumentCenter/View/4040.
Pierce County is now reviewing its comprehensive plan and the shoreline management plan. What will that mean for the Key Peninsula?
The Washington State Legislature passed the Growth Management Act in the 1990s. The act outlined planning goals to guide the development of comprehensive plans for each county. The goals included urban growth, reduction of sprawl, transportation, affordable housing, economic development, natural resource industries, open space and recreation, environment, public services, historic preservation and shoreline.
In 1995, Pierce County passed its comprehensive plan and has reviewed it every eight years since then, as required by the state. The plan guides county decisions related to growth and development in unincorporated Pierce County. The plan is due for review, and now, at 20 years and with newer census data available since the last update, the county is taking action.
Impact of Comprehensive Plan Revision on the Community Plans
Because the various community plans (there are 10 in addition to Key Peninsula) had many commonalities, county staff wanted to simplify procedures. In addition, some community issues such as zoning regulations, agricultural resource lands and design standards are now addressed in county programs or regulations.
Between April and September 2014, county staff met with the individual land use advisory commissions to work on the community plan consolidation.
The staff worked with the Key Peninsula Land Use Advisory Commission (KPAC) to highlight sections of the community plan that might be shifted to the comprehensive plan —sections that were common to the community plans and those that were regulatory in nature. The groups also identified sections that KPAC wanted to keep intact —reflecting unique aspects of the community plan —while moving the more general policies to the Pierce County Comprehensive Plan.
Impact on the Key Peninsula
Jeff Mann, senior planner with Pierce County Planning and Land Services, and other staff met with KPAC and concerned citizens. He described the reaction to the county process early on as “mixed”but also felt that ultimately the reception was supportive.
Members of KPAC and those who worked on the current plan have some concerns. Don Swensen noted, for example, that although ground water is common to all community plans, the concerns in Graham are very different from the concerns on the Key Peninsula, where the shoreline plays a dominant role.
He and others fear that simply presenting all regulatory issues in the county document, separate from the community plan, will remove the context for those very regulations. His hope is that the community plan, where people struggled over every word to assure that the plan reflected the unique characteristics of the Key Peninsula, will remain intact and that it can simply have cross-references to the pertinent sections in the county plan.
A few changes may be of particular interest to those on the Key Peninsula.
Some properties will be redesignated as agricultural resource lands. These are plots greater than five acres and with good soil, and would be preserved for agricultural use including agritourism. Affected landowners have been informed.
Detached accessory housing units (self-contained residential buildings) are now included in housing density. Most of the Key Peninsula is designated as rural residential 10. A maximum of two residences is permitted as long as 50 percent of the lot is designated as open space. Current detached units will be grandfathered in, and attached units do not add to housing density.
The new comprehensive plan encourages schools serving rural locations to be located in neighboring towns but recognizes the need for schools to care for students where they live. If additional capacity were needed in the community, expanding current sites would be preferred over building new facilities.
On March 11, staff from the county presented the new plan to KPAC and community members. A follow-up meeting for questions and comments took place the following week.
Staff will incorporate comments and take the document to the Pierce County Planning Commission for review and recommendations.
For more information, visit the Pierce County website for the Realize 2030 Comprehensive Plan Update at co.pierce.wa.us/index.aspx?NID=3250.
The public meeting of the planning commission for rural area modifications will be April 28 at 6 p.m. in the public meeting room at the Pierce County Public Services Building, located at 2401 S 35th Street in Tacoma. Final recommendations will be complete on April 30 and the county council will vote on the plan in June.
Food insecurity is a real problem in this country — one in five families in Washington receive support from food pantries supported by state food assistance programs. The Key Peninsula is no exception.
Two food banks with permanent locations — Key Peninsula Community Services (KPCS) and Bischoff Food Bank — as well as one mobile unit, FISH Food Bank — are serving local residents. All have proud histories and help to ensure that people do not go hungry.
The story of a recent new arrival illustrates some of the struggles. (She faces a domestic violence threat and asked to remain anonymous.) Last July, her ex-husband took her two young sons. Homeless, she and her boyfriend lived in a tent in Tacoma and moved to the Key Peninsula in December at the suggestion of a relative. They were able to get a tent from KPCS and lived in an abandoned house while getting food support from both food banks.
Now she has legal help through the YWCA and a place to live near the Bischoff Food Bank, where she volunteers. She has been reunited with her children. The oldest, who has moderate autism, is enrolled in kindergarten and she hopes her youngest will enter the Head Start program at Evergreen. She is looking for part-time work.
“People here have been amazing and helpful. Now I have a safety net. If they don’t have what I need, they help to find it,” she said.
Penny Gazabat, executive director at Key Peninsula Community Services, said the need for food has increased dramatically since 2008, when she first started. “We had 97 families in our food basket program in 2008, and we have 300 now.”
Ed Townson, executive director at the Bischoff Food Bank, said, “Before I got involved, you could not have convinced me that there was this much need. It breaks my heart. The current government help is just not enough. We have about 10 new families register with us each month.”
Key Peninsula Community Services
KPCS was founded in 1982 and was located in Vaughn until 1989, when it moved to its current location just south of Home. It depends on volunteers but also has two paid staff. The food bank manager salary is paid through a community block grant and fundraising provides a salary for the driver of the refrigerated truck.
The bank partners with Food Lifeline in Seattle, which gives access to QFC, Fred Meyer, Albertsons and Target; independent relationships were developed with Costco and Safeway. The food bank also works with the Tacoma-based Emergency Food Network (EFN), which is a distributor to many food banks and hot meal providers in Pierce County.
KPCS is a member of the Food Bank Coalition, a group of more than 60 food banks in Pierce County. This organization advocates for food insecurity issues and, as a member, KPCS is eligible for a higher volume of food and for the federal commodities program.
The nonprofit serves residents of the Key Peninsula. Clients register once a year and are asked to show a photo ID and a piece of postal mail to confirm residency. If they are homeless, this is waived. There is an income cap — 185 percent of federal poverty level — but proof of income is not required.
A total of about 36,000 pounds of food is distributed each month through two programs: Bread Closet and food baskets.
The Bread Closet is open four days a week and individuals can come whenever the bank is open. Participants are asked to register once a year and they sign in with each visit so that the number of individuals served is known.
Bread, desserts, fresh produce, dairy and deli items are available, depending on what has been donated. About 2,000-2,700 individuals a month benefit from this program. Products past their prime are donated to farmers to feed livestock.
Households in the food basket program receive a three-day emergency supply of food once a month. The basket provids three meals including meat, cereal, boxed food, coffee, oil and seasonings for everyone in the family. Some household cleaning and personal hygiene products are also available. Gazabat noted that most families report the basket lasts for nearly a week.
Bischoff Food Bank
The Bischoff Food Bank was founded in 2006 by Ross Bischoff. At first, he simply set up a table and handed out food at the Key Peninsula Lutheran Church. Although he died shortly after, his work was continued by Wally Haugaard.
The operation outgrew the church and in March 2013, it moved to Key Center for a year. In March 2014, the KP Bischoff Food bank decided to end its partnership with FISH Food Banks of Pierce County and was temporarily without a home. In June 2014, the food bank moved to its current location in Home, off Key Peninsula Highway.
It is a volunteer operation, with about 16 volunteers working at the food bank and driving to pick up donations. They partner with NW Harvest, Budd’s Food Distribution in Tacoma and the Emergency Food Network. In addition, Food Market in Lake Kathryn Village donates three times a week.
They support families throughout the entire Key Peninsula. Customers register by filling out an intake form that provides statistical information. There are income guidelines but proof of income is not required.
Bischoff Food Bank
1916 Key Peninsula Highway, Lakebay
Tuesday-Friday: 2– 6 p.m., Saturday: 2– 5 p.m.
Key Peninsula Community Services
17015 9th ST KP N, Lakebay
Tuesday, Thursday & Friday 10 a.m. – noon and 12:45 – 4 p.m., Wednesday 10 a.m. – noon and 12:45 – 6 p.m.
FISH Food Bank
12521 134th Ave KPN, Gig Harbor
Friday 2 – 7 p.m.
The bank is open five days a week but it has been known to make emergency deliveries to families who lack transportation. Clothing, household items and appliances are also available.
Kimberly Miller, board vice president and warehouse operations manager, said that on a typical month they serve 2,000 individuals and 450 families, supplying 35,000 pounds of food.
Individual donations (food, service and financial) are welcome. Miller noted that they are in particular need of canned goods and protein. Produce is welcome. As with KPCS, food past its prime is donated to farmers for livestock.
Bischoff welcomes those seeking community service hours (high school students meeting requirements or for court-mandated issues such as paying off traffic violations).
FISH Food Banks of Pierce County
FISH Food Banks was started in the 1970s by a group of churches. It provides food on the Key Peninsula once a week through a mobile food bank on Fridays from 2 to 7 p.m. First-time clients are asked to bring photo ID and the full names and birthdates of household members. The food bank operates next to the Key Peninsula Latter Day Saints Church.
Hot meals provided on the KP
The Peninsula Lutheran Church offers breakfast at 9 a.m. on first and third Saturdays, and dinner on the fourth Saturday at 3 p.m. It is located at 4213 Lackey Road KP North, Lakebay
Sunday Community Meal
KP Community Services offers a Sunday community meal at 3 p.m. As many as 50 people come each Sunday, including some seniors and families. Oliver Coldeen coordinates the program. Four churches rotate to sponsor the meal —Longbranch Community Church, plus Gig Harbor’s Wellspring Fellowship, Harbor Christian Center and St. Nicholas Catholic Church.
Harbor Christian Center manages the entire meal. For the others, Coldeen shops for what is on sale at Safeway and plans the menu. The churches provide the manpower and pay for the groceries. KP Community Center donates the facility.
“It can be a bit like the Iron Chef, getting a meal on the table for 50 people in two hours,” Coldeen said.
Leftovers are boxed and sent home with those who want them.
Thursday Afternoon Meal
Lakebay Community Church offers a Thursday afternoon meal each week at 2 p.m. About 25 people attend, and after the meal there is a supply of donated food for them to take home. It is coordinated by Howard and Diane Johnson as a part of the Mingle and Minister Church Ministry.
A team of nine volunteers from several churches takes turns preparing the meal, with most ingredients donated by Panera, Budd’s Food Service, Grocery Outlet and, from time to time, Lulu’s Home Port.
“We have a good time and welcome newcomers,” Johnson said.
Editor’s note: This is the fourth and final article in our geoduck series. The first focused on the hearing for a new farm on the west side of the Key Peninsula, the second reviewed the history of geoduck aquaculture and the third concentrated on the environmental impact.
Washington is the largest producer and exporter of geoducks, and although the economics are far from transparent, there is a fascinating story to be told. Developing technology, policies affecting harvesting, turning a low-end product to a luxury food item and a growing Chinese economy all play a part in this tale.
The early years
The industry did not start until after 1967, when abundant subtidal wild beds were discovered, particularly in Washington and British Columbia. In Washington, quotas were established along with agreements with the tribes (though illegal harvesting was common and continues to be a concern).
In Canada, the harvesting was initially derby-style and the pounds harvested jumped from 2,500 tons in 1976 to nearly 8,000 in 1988. As concerns grew for the viability of wild stock, Canada changed to a quota system and harvesting fell to a low of 3,000 tons in 1995.
The target market at the time was almost exclusively in Hong Kong, and this market was reached via Vancouver, B.C. Initially geoduck was sold as a canned food and ex-vessel prices were just 50 cents a pound.
As the harvest plummeted in the mid-1990s, geoduck also began to be marketed as a fresh luxury food. Prices skyrocketed and by 1995 it was selling for $7.50 per pound. Wild harvests have remained fairly constant since 2000 (between 3,500 and 4,000 tons). Wild geoduck are now also harvested in Mexico and Alaska. Prices have risen with ex-vessel geoduck now worth $15 a pound or more and $30 for fresh.
As prices increased, the technology of farming developed. By 2002, the first farms in Washington sold their products.
Shipping infrastructure also evolved and while in the early years 90 percent of geoducks were shipped through Canada, Washington now ships directly to Hong Kong and China.
As China’s economy expands, the taste for geoduck has shown no sign of slowing. Prices continue to rise and the market has moved from Hong Kong to include most major Chinese cities.
The industry’s role
Washington, like any other state, needs industry to survive. Businesses pay salaries, purchase goods in order to operate, and pay taxes and fees. In turn, employees buy goods, pay taxes and thus add to the economy.
The shellfish industry, according to the 2013 report by Northern Economics, spent $101.4 million and generated $184 million in output. It was responsible for 1,900 direct jobs and an additional 810 jobs, indirectly.
This is not an enormous piece of the state economy (the landscaping industry is responsible for a total of 43,000 total jobs (direct and indirect) and sales of $2.4 billion. And Boeing, Amazon and Costco surely dwarf shellfish.
But Kevin Decker from Washington Sea Grant noted, “The counties where aquaculture is important are largely rural. For those counties this industry is important. In addition, Washington wants to diversify its industry.”
The money at stake
Farming geoducks requires a significant investment. Land must be leased. Seed must be purchased; protective equipment must be purchased and installed, monitored regularly and then removed when the geoducks have dug deep enough to elude predators. And finally, after five to seven years, they must be harvested using high-volume, low-pressure hoses brought in via barge.
Exactly how much it costs to farm geoducks is not clear. Based on a survey of the Pacific Shellfish Growers Association, the average cost to farm all shellfish is about $5,000 per acre per year. But, as Decker noted, geoduck probably costs more to farm than other shellfish, and there is likely variation in costs depending on the size of the company. He observed that companies have been hesitant to share their data —it is a small and competitive industry.
How much money is made at harvest is a bit more transparent. The Department of Natural Resources, with numbers from 2004, estimated that an acre would produce $750,000 per acre every five years. Prices have increased since that time by at least fifty percent, so an estimate of $1,000,000 every five years would be fairly conservative.
How the Key Peninsula fits in
Currently about 200 acres are leased in the state for geoduck aquaculture. On the Key Peninsula, 22.3 acres are currently approved for farming, with 2.5 acres not yet planted. An additional 16 acres were approved and are under appeal, and several other permits are pending. Burley Lagoon, immediately to the north of the Key Peninsula, is the site of two other pending permits for a total of 35.6 acres (including a mixed one for geoducks and manila clams).
All current geoduck farms in Pierce County are on the Key Peninsula. Though the county accounts for only 0.5 percent of all aquaculture in the state, it provides 11 percent of all geoduck sites, and if other permits are approved, that percentage may grow.
According to data from the Pacific Shellfish Growers Association, about 10 percent of aquaculture employees come from Pierce County, so it appears that the industry brings jobs at least at the county level.
If an average acre of farming brings in $200,000 a year ($1 million every five years), then the harvest on the peninsula is probably sold for about $4 million. This calculation does not take into account the costs of farming, the fact that some acreage remains dormant each year or that the clams may be harvested at longer intervals. But by any measure, this is a significant amount of money.
Less tangible impact
If it is difficult to get accurate figures for the expenses and income of the industry, it is probably even more difficult to measure the economic impact along other lines.
Property values are affected but the impact seems to be very site-specific and difficult to measure.
The industry touts the beneficial effects of filtering to water quality but those effects are overstated, according to Jim Brennan, a marine biologist who specializes in nearshore matters.
Brennan worked as a marine habitat biologist for Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and then served as the senior ecologist for King County.
“We can’t necessarily draw conclusions from the East Coast data on oysters,”he said. “Even there, it has been determined that bivalves filtering the water is not the solution to pollution. Clear water is not necessarily ‘clean’water.”
Other benefits mentioned include fostering of stewardship with increasing awareness of the importance of water quality and serving as an ecosystem health indicator. But, as Brennan notes, there are minimal data to support those assertions and it is difficult to include them in calculating any economic benefit. The long-term consequences on the environment are still unclear as well.
Just as the environmental impact of geoduck farming continues to unfold, the economic impact story is evolving. Two studies to better understand the economics of the geoduck industry are due to be completed in June.
Decker, of Washington Sea Grant, is working with the Pacific Shellfish Institute to collect accurate data about costs and economic contribution. Katharine Wellman of Northern Economics is working on a study to help with marine spatial planning, a project that encompasses all fishing, shipping, shellfish and any activity that uses the waterways —which is of interest to the state departments of natural resources, ecology and health.
Source: Much of the economic history comes from a report produced by Northern Economics for the Washington State Department of Natural Resources; from a report for Pacific Shellfish Institute by Northern Economics and from a paper currently under review at the journal Marine Policy, “From Cannery to Culinary Luxury: The Evolution of the Global Geoduck Market”by Gina Louise Shamshak and Jonathan R. King.
Want more info?
The next Shoreline Master Plan hearing is at the Peninsula High auditorium on Monday, Feb. 2 at 5:30 p.m. For details, go to the Pierce County Department of Land Services at . More information can be found by visiting Marine Spatial Planning , the Coalition to Protect Puget Sound Habitat (regular updates) at along with Washington Sea Grant studies at wsg.washington.edu.
For many seniors, The Mustard Seed Project and Key Peninsula Community Services have some great options for transportation.
First, there is a wheelchair-accessible mini-shuttle. In 2007, The Mustard Seed Project joined the Pierce County Coordinated Transportation Coalition. The organization was encouraged to apply for stimulus funds to lease a van, which added to transportation options but was not set up for physically challenged riders.
There is now a wheelchair-accessible mini-shuttle through a pilot program (Community Solutions) with Pierce Transit. The pilot program requires for 25 percent of all the users to be ADA-eligible.
There are regularly scheduled runs taking riders from home to the senior lunches at Key Peninsula Community Services, the Senior Center in Gig Harbor and the Silver Sneakers exercise program at the YMCA. In addition, riders can schedule the shuttle for medical appointments as needed. The shuttle provides a total of about 100 rides per month.
In addition, The Mustard Seed Project provides a volunteer driver program. Catholic Community Services had a volunteer driver program in Tacoma but with no local volunteers, the time and cost for drivers were prohibitive.
Edie Morgan, executive director of The Mustard Seed Project, began local recruitment and by 2008 had a core of seven or eight to begin driving. It has since grown to a pool of 12.
The volunteer program was initially coordinate by Catholic Community Services in Tacoma but The Mustard Seed Project took over after the first year.
Catholic Community Services covers much of the cost of the coordinator through a contract and then provides background checks on the drivers, insurance and training as well as mileage costs. Those who get rides are not charged, though they are welcome to give a donation.
The significant limitation of the program is that it can only cover those clients with limited incomes. “This is a problem we still contend with,”Morgan said. “The cost of transportation in our community is very high and we need to find a way to provide rides at an affordable rate for those who can afford it.”
Currently about 125 rides per month are scheduled.
Key Peninsula Community Services has had shuttle van for nearly 10 years, thanks to an initial grant from Boeing. Maintenance and insurance is covered by funds raised through donations and grants.
It is used for first and third Tuesday shopping and for field trips. Riders call the Senior Center to arrange to be picked up at home in the morning, and are taken to the Port Orchard Fred Meyers, pharmacies as needed and then lunch together at a location of their choice.
Field trips have included day trips to Mount St. Helens, Portland and theater in Tacoma. The van is for the use of those 55 and older. Penny Gazabat, director of Community Services, noted that those using the service must be relatively able-bodied.
Need a ride?
Are you a senior or an adult with disabilities? To arrange transportation using the mini-shuttle or the volunteer driver program, or to find out about other transportation options, call The Mustard Seed Project at 884-9814.
Are you 55 or older? Need to go shopping? To arrange transportation for first and third Tuesday senior shopping to Port Orchard call Key Peninsula Community Services at 884-4440.
In our almost-island setting, 23 miles long and with countless winding back roads, how do Key Peninsula residents get around without a car? If this is like any other rural community, the car is just about the only option, and around 30 percent of residents depend on friends and family for transportation.
KP School Bus Connects, an innovative program using school buses three times a day, is a creative program that helps people get around.
In 2007, The Mustard Seed Project asked seniors to identify their most pressing barriers to aging in place. Transportation was the major concern. That year, The Mustard Seed Project joined the Pierce County Coordinated Transportation Coalition —by far the smallest organization in a group that included Sound Transit. Connections formed through the coalition led to a number of initiatives to meet transportation needs.
In 2010, Pierce Transit faced funding deficits and determined that the ridership of the bus on the Key Peninsula was too low. The route was cancelled.
The Mustard Seed Project, working with the Puget Sound Educational Service District, applied for a KP School Bus Connects pilot. Using school buses when students were not being transported, service began in November 2011. Community transportation was offered free of charge and targeted underserved populations including seniors, youth, veterans and those with special needs or low income.
The Key Peninsula Community Council took over administering the program in 2013. Marcia Harris, new to the council and with a long work history as a school administrator, including transportation, took over coordination.
“What an opportunity —this was a chance to make transportation available with no need for a significant capital investment,”Harris said. “We take advantage of the school buses already in use, and after drivers deliver students at Vaughan and Evergreen at 8:50 a.m., to return to the bus barn in Purdy, they simply make scheduled stops along the way, ending at Lake Kathryn Center and then at Purdy Park and Ride,”Harris said.
The route is repeated two hours later at 11. In the afternoon, there is a single bus leaving Peninsula High for Purdy Park and Ride and then driving as far south on the Key Peninsula as Evergreen Elementary School.
There is no need to call in advance —riders simply wait at the scheduled stops. For the minimal cost of fuel and the short additional time the driver takes to make the stops en route to the bus barn, residents have access to transportation.
Dorothy Rawls has been driving the bus for the school district for 11 years and has taken the evening route for three.
“It’s a very colorful bunch and pretty entertaining”she said. “I keep signing up for the route each year. I know what the program is about —providing rides to people who really need them.”
Emily Poundstone, a Peninsula High freshman, is a regular on the afternoon route that usually carries about a dozen students.
“This bus has helped me succeed,”she said. “Without it, I would not be able to stay after school to get help or to do extra work when I need to. My parents would not be able to pick me up.”
The use of the program has grown from just one to two riders a day in 2013 to often more than 10 a day since last spring.
Riders use the service for many reasons. Some can no longer drive, some cannot afford a car or have a car that needs repairs. Others are one-car families with the car needed to get to work while other family members have medical appointments, shopping or other transportation needs.
The council has submitted a renewal grant to cover the costs of coordination oversight and marketing. In addition, Harris has requested funds to expand to three days. She is also working with the Red Barn and Communities in Schools to increase outreach to students.
Some Peninsula High students have not been able to participate in after-school activities because they can’t get home —allowing them to use the late-afternoon return bus can make that possible. She also hopes that students from the elementary schools who would like to participate in tutoring could take advantage of a later bus.
During the summer, there was a single bus route three times a day on Tuesdays. One driver managed all three trips, which increased route predictability and consistency.
“There was a real benefit to have a driver become familiar with the regular riders,”Harris said.
Service on the KP School Bus Connects is available to everyone. The schedule is available online at the Key Peninsula Community Council website kpcouncil.org or call 884-2877.
Harris is enthusiastic, feeling that this could be a model for other rural communities. She and Annie Bell, who is the director of transportation for Peninsula Schools, hope to share this model and “lessons learned”with other school district transportation directors across the state at their annual conference in late June.
Editor’s note: This article is the third of a four-part of a series on geoduck aquaculture. A final article on the economics of geoduck farming will be published next month.
What exactly is the environmental impact of geoduck farming? Oyster, manila clam and mussel aquaculture had been a part of Puget Sound for decades, but the ability to grow geoducks is a relatively new development.
As new farms were established in the mid 2000s, some illegally, communities worried that their shorelines were at risk. Concerns ranged from aesthetics and loss of recreational beaches to loss of habitat and the risks of PVC tubes used to protect the clams.
In addition to worries about the immediate impact of a geoduck farm on a local community, what might be the long term consequences? What are the cumulative effects of larger numbers of farms over decades?
The state Legislature passed a bill in 2007 establishing a fund to study the impact of geoduck aquaculture over the next six years. Sea Grant, a program that is a collaboration between the University of Washington and the federal government, was chosen to commission the research. A literature review and research report were published in late 2013 and an update on new research directions was published last month.
Geoduck farms cause changes in the local beach. But is change equivalent to harm? Are species at risk? As is true with most scientific research, answers are rarely black and white, and most studies lead to further questions.
Aesthetics are an ongoing concern. Most pictures shown by opponents to demonstrate the sight of PVC tubes that have become dislodged and litter beaches are from 2006 and 2007. Practices have improved to minimize the loss of tubes, and permits require crews to clean the beach after storms. The industry has developed mesh tubes that are less visible and don’t require nets over the tops.
Aquaculture advocates state that the tubes (used for the first year or two to protect young clams from predators) are visible only 5 percent of the time, but that probably underestimates the actual visual experience.
Low tides, when the tubes are visible, are at night during the winter but in daytime during the summer. This means that they are visible roughly 20 percent of the time during spring and summer months.
Opponents decry the trapping of birds in nets, though this is a relatively rare occurrence.
According to experts testifying on behalf of Longbranch Shellfish at a Shoreline Hearing Board appeal, PVC tubes appear to be relatively safe. The material is inert and sediment near the tubes has not shown any evidence of microplastics or leaching of toxins.
There is currently little or no evidence that the tubes or debris from the tubes (which sinks to the bottom of the Sound) would harm fish or birds. The actual volume of debris on the floor of the Sound is unknown, however.
The Sea Grant research studies looked at the impact of geoduck farming on the water, sediment, eelgrass and animals living in the sediment and at the surface. The studies were limited in overall scope, and although substantial negative impacts were not seen, there were clearly some differences between geoduck farms and adjacent beaches. Further research was recommended.
Laura Hendricks, of the Coalition to Protect Puget Sound, continues to be concerned about the impact of PVC debris and microplastics as the volume of farming expands. Wayne Daley, a former Boeing engineer who has a fisheries degree and has worked as a consultant since 1996, is critical of the Sea Grant-sponsored studies. He said that until the impact on forage fish (herring and sea lance) and phytoplankton on the near shore is understood, there should be a hold on additional farms.
How much aquaculture is too much? Are there any limits on the amount of shoreline that could be farmed?
Ty Booth and Dave Risvold of the Pierce County Land Panning and Services Department noted that although any landowner who owns tidelands could apply for an aquaculture permit, there are practical limitations.
First, there are physical characteristics of a given beach that may make geoduck farming in particular impossible. Second, the steps involved in applying for a permit are onerous, particularly for individuals.
The Department of Ecology recently informed counties that the process must include a conditional use permit —which requires review and approval by Ecology. But 60 percent of Washington tidelands are privately owned and there is no legislation that absolutely limits the number of farms in Puget Sound.
Booth notes, though, that between 1997 and 2005, six permits for geoduck farms were approved. Since that time, three have been approved by Pierce County and two are under appeal. Nine permits are pending, although some of those applications are old and may not be pursued.
Cumulative impact —looking at the effects of aquaculture over multiple harvests and taking into account the increased number of acres farmed —is now the key issue. It is included in shoreline master plans to assure that there is no net loss of ecological functions. “No net loss”is not defined in black and white terms, however.
Explained Perry Lund, Southwest Region unit supervisor for the Department of Ecology, “When we look at any permit, we have to look at the whole picture, and look not just at the specific project. We must take into account mitigation, restoration and the broader planning concepts within the Shoreline Master Program.
“Any project, whether it is putting in a septic system, a dock or bulkhead, or starting a geoduck farm, will cause a change but we want to assure as much as possible that it does not lead to a substantial negative impact,”Lund said.
What comes next? Work through Sea Grant continues, though it depends on funding from the state Legislature. Larry Seaquist wasinstrumental in getting recent funding for aquaculture research, and it is not clear who will continue to advocate for money since he lost his legislative seat in the lastelection.
Washington Sea Grant researchers are now concentrating on developing models to understand the effects of aquaculture on the food web; addressing thephysical, biological and chemical factors interacting with aquaculture (including development of an early warning system for ocean acidification); fullyassessing the economic impacts of aquaculture and spatial planning (extent of current farms, data on ecological sensitivity and otherconsiderations such as water quality, physical constraints, designated areas for other uses).
P. Sean McDonald, PhD, a UW researcher working with the Sea Grant program, said, “The Puget Sound shore is a hard place for theanimals that live there. Storms, surf and flooding may be as disruptive to their environment as geoduck farming. But weneed to understand if there is a tipping point, where the effects over time or due to increased extent are causing harm to our beaches.
“We are using the data from the Sea Grant-sponsored geoduckprojects to model how much aquaculture might be too much or whether thereis a tipping point beyond which aquaculture expansion could affect the environment more broadly,”McDonald said.
The Lakebay Marina is once again becoming a destination location and owners Mark and Cindy Scott have plans to honor its historic past as they slowly renovate the buildings.
They purchased the property in 2012, opened for business in April 2013, and have welcomed Key Peninsula residents as well as boaters, who have begun arriving in large numbers during the summer.
The pier was initially built to accommodate the Mosquito Fleet — steamboats amassed by Conrad Lorenz and his sons to ship lumber from the Key Peninsula.
In 1928, the property became home to the Western Washington Cooperative Egg and Poultry Association. The co-op had feed for animals, as well as tractor and other equipment, and stored dairy products — mostly eggs — headed to Tacoma. In the 1950s, as roads improved, the last of the Mosquito Fleet retired, and the co-op moved from Lakebay.
At that time the location was transformed to a boating destination. Docks were built, a large dance floor was added to the building, and yachts began to motor to visit.
Small cabins were built on shore and it became the Lakebay Marina and Resort. The Hostetler family purchased and ran the business starting in the late 1960s.
When Mr. Hostetler died, his eight children continued to operate the marina, but they all had busy lives and competing priorities — Mark Scott was in contact with them for eight years before they all agreed to sell to him. He remembers coming to the café as a child and wanted to see the place come back to its unique presence on Puget Sound.
The new owners have been slowly restoring the property, learning the restaurant trade and scheduling wine and beer tastings featuring local wineries and breweries. They have also hosted a movie premier and musical events. And they have established an annual tradition: Every Memorial Day Weekend, they host a wine tasting from the Mosquito Fleet Winery and free clams.
“I know the marina business. Running a restaurant involved a steep learning curve,” Scott said.
The owner of Jimmy D’s in Poulsbo initially helped him open the restaurant and they are now running it on their own. His top priority: a top-quality burger — ground chuck and a toasted buttered bun.
His eyes light up as he describes the local tomatoes from My Mother’s Garden. They also serve fish and chips. As they succeed in offering consistent quality with these offerings, they plan to expand the menu.
Scott says the marina is full and working well. He hopes to build and install a pump-out barge. This is a program coordinated with the Army Corps of Engineers and state parks, offering a service to boats to encourage them to pump out their “black water” at the barge for disposal rather than dumping it into the Sound.
The Scotts have refurbished a garage and they will soon replace the roof and windows and repair the siding on the parsonage house. They plan to move into the house within a year or so, once their son graduates from high school on Bainbridge Island.
The house was built in about 1920 by Dolly Caspary, the Lakebay postmaster. In the early 1930s, Dr. Johnson, an osteopath who delivered several local babies, lived there. It later served as the parsonage for the Lakebay Community Church.
The three small cabins on the property have been left standing so that when they are replaced, the permitting process will be simpler. There is one rental cabin now available and the Scotts hope to improve the camping and RV sites.
The restoration and maintenance are all costly, though Scott emphasizes that the marina and resort is a very sustainable business. It is maintenance of the infrastructure such as the pilings that is especially expensive.
He hopes to get recognition as a historic site, either at the county or at a national level. This would assure that when he and his wife are no longer owners, the establishment would continue to play a central role in the community. And it might also help provide funding sources for preservation and restoration.
The Scotts invite customers to visit. Summers are very busy, but there is plenty of room at the counter for a great burger and fries this winter.
Winter hours are 5-9 p.m. on Fridays and 11 a.m. to 9 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. For information about events, rentals and services provided, visit lakebaymarina.com.